Rather, it depicts addiction as a way of adapting to increasingly dominant and onerous aspects of the modern world — in particular, social fragmentation and individual dislocation.
Short-term exposure, as seen on September 11, may trigger severe asthma attacks http: For example, it can be quite rare in a society for centuries, and then become almost universal when a tribal culture is destroyed or a highly developed civilization collapses. The Official View has been used to justify very long sentences for drug traffickers in the United States as well as military destruction of drug-producing peasant farms in South America.
Outdoor Air Pollution, climate and allergic respiratory diseases: The world-wide epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and eating disorders is one important testimonial to the fact that drug addictions are far from the most important corner of the tapestry of human addictions.
Evolutionary biologists and psychologists recognize that many forms of adaptation can become excessive under certain conditions, causing great harm to individuals and populations. The modern era is not more evil than its predecessors but, like every era, it brings both new opportunities and new problems to be solved.
The fact that an addicted person was physically or sexually abused as a child does not necessarily mean that the abuse was the cause of their addiction. Natural recovery is the most likely outcome of addiction.
The foundational elements of the Official View can be evaluated with a normal understanding of the rules of evidence and the facts of history. Its existence and suppression are still ignored by most mainstream media and by official sources. These are examined in greater detail in my book, The Globalization of Addiction and in more recent sources.
Despite countless interventions carried out under the rubric of the Official View, the prevalence of addiction has continued to rise throughout the 20th century and into the 21st. Fragmentation Dislocation Theory starts with the historical fact that societies everywhere have become fragmented in the last five centuries See Fig.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Sept ; i9 p 7. In the past, there was some plausible basis for hope in this doctrine. It seems likely that new variations will continue to proliferate as the older ones collapse under skeptical examination.
Therefore, evidence of some heritability of addiction is not surprising. Although the Official View is proclaimed in tones of unimpeachable authority by its advocates, it changes continually. This contradicts the 6th foundational element of the Official View.
By contrast with the Official View, Dislocation Theory does not focus on single individuals, but on the societal causes of the globalized flood of addiction in the modern era.
This does not mean that some individuals will not be harmed by the same behavior. The mere fact that the Official View attempted to medicalize and moralize the problem of addiction was not, by itself, a fatal mistake. Genes can effect various risk factors. They are said to achieve obscene wealth by deliberately inducing a ruinous, incurable disease in their victims.
Addiction, like all other human activities is influenced in various ways by the human genome and by the particular genetic endowments of each individual. Of course each addicted individual has a unique story to tell, but Dislocation Theory provides a societal framework within which the struggles of addicted individuals in general can be more deeply understood.
In addition, these firefighters coughed up a dark sputum that was infiltrated with pebbles and particles. Why are people who become addicted to drugs not automatically addicted to everything else that might augment the supply of dopamine or other neurological sources of pleasure that their brains lack after they become addicted, according to many current versions of the Official View?
However, neither the experimental evidence that hundreds of genes can influence the likelihood of addiction in some species and in some situations, nor the reports of substantial heritabilities of alcoholism from human adoption and twin studies comprise substantial evidence of an inherited predisposition to addiction.
There are growing signs that heroin use is on the upswing that heroin may be the Next Big Thing within the Official View again.Altogether, the direct and indirect costs of asthma to the U.S. economy are projected to reach $ billion in Asthma is a growing challenge for disadvantaged communities.
Asthma disparities are a persistent problem. Urban and socioeconomically disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionately greater asthma burden. COMMUNITY LYNCHING AND THE US ASTHMA EPIDEMIC Rodrick Wallace, Ph.D., Mindy Thompson Fullilove, M.D., The New York State sectional and longitudinal effects of a systematic destruction of minority urban communities issue of The American Journal of Public Health , including the Karlsen and Nazroo article, has.
Objective: Minority children with asthma who live in low-income urban communities bear a disproportionate burden of the disease. This study explores the perceived health care needs related to asthma care, identifies asthma triggers, potential barriers to care, and assesses the need for additional community resources.
Prevalence of Childhood Asthma in Urban Communities: The Impact of Ethnicity and Income. It is possible that public awareness campaigns and education on the issue of asthma in New York City has contributed to this relatively low M.
Cloutier, D. Wakefield, C. Hall, H. BailitChildhood asthma in an urban community: prevalence, care system. Enright P., Evans III R., Morgan W., Stout J. Home and allergic characteristics of children with asthma in seven U.S.
urban communities and design of an environmental intervention: the Inner-City Asthma Study. Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with million children affected in the USA.
A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host.Download